Information Centric Network - Changing the Internet ParadigmWhile traditional networks have nodes as a central element, in an Information Centric Network (ICN) the place of nodes takes information. Compared to traditional networks, where addressing is performed according to IP-addresses, in ICN addressing is performed according to data names. This means that any user can address the network for data and get it without knowing anything about where it is located.
ICN is also used for organizing systems that require effective multicast content delivery. In this case, content is delivered to multiple users without sending multiple copies via matching segments of route from the producer to the consumer; such as streaming systems (Twitch) or video on-demand access systems (YouTube). In ICN, data and nodes are independent, and, if data cached, when the first consumer accesses data, it will be located at all ICN-nodes that create the shortest route from the first user to a vendor. For all other consumers who have the shortest route to a vendor that affects the same route of the first user, data will be returned from the nearest of the ICN-nodes that create this route.
ICN is also used in Content Delivery Networks (CDN), where copies of the content are distributed to selected nodes in a network, and with a request to the content, it returns the copy that is located on a node with the smallest number of hops to the user who has made this request. CDN also reduces the load on the resources that provide access to data, such as Web sites, logically organizing around them a so-called ring that caches data often accessed by users, so CDN can respond to requests, thus protecting the resource from overloads.
There are two possible ICN designs - CCN and NDN:
- CCN - Content-Centric Networking
- NDN - Named-Data Networking.
Historically, CCN design appeared first, with the help of Van Jacobson. Since 2009, it is developed by PARC, owned by Xerox.
NDN Design appeared in 2010 and was based on CCN design. However, in course of time, it became more and more estranged from CCN in terms of implementation.